تحميل Studies in Labor Migration - Middle East and North Africa بي دي إف

لقبStudies in Labor Migration - Middle East and North Africa
فئةكتب منوعة
LanguageArabic
حجم الملف1,2 م.ب
إجمالي الصفحات104
Document Text Contents
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- Rate of Arab highly skilled workers among emigrants is three times higher than the rate

of Arab highly skilled workers among residents (26.4% and 8.5% respectively).



- Rate of Arab brain drain to OECD countries increased by about 8.9% annually during the

period 1990-2000.



- Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia respectively, are the highest six Arab

countries in the bulk of brain drain. Their share of the total Arab brain drain to OECD

countries is estimated by 75% in 1990, increased to about 77% in 2000.



- Arab brain drain to OECD countries represents about 9% of all highly educated residents

in the working age groups. The reading of this percentages means, in front of each 100

highly educated residents in the working ages, there are another 9 are lost due to

emigration.



- Lebanon, Somalia, Comoros, and Morocco respectively are the most influenced Arab

countries by the phenomena of brain drain. Burden of brain drain in Lebanon is the

highest. Almost 39% of Lebanon’s highly educated persons are usually migrates to

OECD countries. This percentage may move up to about 50% if we include migrants to

other target countries rather than OECD.



- Migration of tertiary educated persons from Northern Africa region (Egypt, Libya,

Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Sudan) is the biggest brain drain stream among Arab

regions. It represents about 52% of the Arab brain drain to OECD countries. The burden

of Northern Africa brain drain can be explained if we know that, approximately 7.2% of

the highly educated persons in the region are migrated to OECD country by year 2000.



- Change ratio of Arab brain drain to OECD countries approximately doubled during the

period 1990-2000. All Arab countries achieved an increase in their brain drain change

ratio during the study period. Increasing the change ratio of Arab brain drain over time

reflects the strength of the economic, social, and political push factors in the origins. The

highest change ratio in the Arab brain drain to OECD countries is generally associated

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Bibliography



- Abella, Manolo I. (1995). “Asian Migrant and Contract Workers in the Middle East”.

Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Robin Cohen, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.



- Al-Najjar, Baqer (2001). “Dream to Migrate to Wealth: Migrant Labor in the Gulf”.

Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies.



- Arab Labor Organization (ALO). Database.



- Bardak, Ummuhan (2005). “Migration Trends in MEDA and A Discussion on the Links

between Migration and Educational Systems”, ETF Briefing note, ETF Sharing

Experience in Training.



- Brian, Milch (1998). “Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families”, Stanford

University.



- CAPMAS, (2001): “The Permanent Migration of Egyptians 2000”, Cairo, Egypt.



- Dito, Mohamed E. (2008). “GCC Labor Migration Governance”. United Nations

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Population Division,

Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Bangkok, Thailand.



- Girgis, Maurice (2002). “Would Nationals and Asians Replace Arab Workers in the

GCC?” presented at the Fourth Mediterranean Development Forum, Amman, Jordan,

October 2002.



- Hassan, Khaled (2007). “Estimation of the Arab Brain Drain and the Associated Socio-

economic Push Factors”, Regional Report of Arab Migration, Population Policies and

Migration Department, League of Arab States.



- International Labor Organization (ILO), Database.

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